Turismo cultural como vetor de sustentabilidade nas cidades .cultural urban tourism and its sustainability

  • Cláudia Helena Henriques Universidade do Algarve, CIEO
Keywords: Tourism, Culture, Cultural tourism, Cities, Cultural and creative industries, Competitiveness, Sustanaibility


Culture has become increasingly important in promoting sustainable development. Many cities with cultural and creative potential, tend to put in evidence their respective value in order to promote tourism development. In this context, this article aims to consider the importance of culture in cities, as a propitiator of tourism development, highlighting how to measure it through key indicators. Methodologically, the analysis of the categorical content of a set of indexes is carried out, showing the respective domains or privileged areas of acessement, methods and key indicators. In addition, there is a consideration of the interconnections between the cultural and creative industries and the tourism industry.

Author Biography

Cláudia Helena Henriques, Universidade do Algarve, CIEO

Universidade do Algarve, CIEO


- Ashworth, G. J., Graham, B. & Tunbridge , J., (2007). Pluralising pasts: heritage, identity and place in multicultural societies. London: Pluto Press.

- Axelsson, R.,Degerman, E., Teitelbaum, S., Andersson, K., Elbakidze, M. & Drotz, M. (2013). Social and Cultural Sustainability: Criteria, Indicators, Verifier Variables for Measurement and Maps for Visualization to Support Planning. In AMBIO 2013, Mar. 42(2): 215–228.

- Arcadis (2016). Sustainable Cities Index 2016 - Putting people at the heart of city sustainability. In Web.pdf https://www.arcadis.com/media/0/6/6/%7B06687980-3179-47AD-89FD-F6AFA76EBB73%7DSustainable%20Cities%20.pdf (acesso em 17.04.2017).

- Citiscope (2016). EXPLAINER: What is the New Urban Agenda?. Citiscope. Global goals. Local solutions. In http: http://citiscope.org/ (acesso em 17.04.2017).

- CCNC [Creative City Network of Canada] (2007). Exploring the Cultural Dimensions of Sustainability. Creative City News, special edition 4 . In: https://www.creativecity.ca/database/files/library/Creative_City_News_E.pdf (acesso em 1.04.2017).

- Charles Landry (2017). Creative Cities Index. In http://charleslandry.com/themes/creative-cities-index/ (acesso em 17.05.2017).

- Duxbury, N., Hosagrahar, J., Pascual, J. (2016). Culture 21 – Agenda 21 for Culture: Why must culture be at the heart of sustainable urban development?, Agenda 21 for culture - Committee on culture of United Cities and Local Governments (UCLG). In http://www.agenda21culture.net/sites/default/files/files/documents/en/culture_sd_cities_web.pdf (acesso em 5.08.2017).

- EU (2014). Cultural Tourism. In http://ec.europa.eu/enterprise/sectors/tourism/cultural-routes/index_en.htm (acesso em 17.02.2017).

- EC [European Commission] (2011). The European Cluster Observatory, Priority Sector Report: Creative and Cultural Industries. In http://ec.europa.eu/enterprise/newsroom/cf/_getdocument.cfm?doc_id=7070 (acesso em 5.08.2017).

- EC, (2017). Mapping of Cultural Heritage Actions in Euroean Union policies, programes, activities. (Latest update: August 2017), European Commission - Culture. In http://ec.europa.eu/assets/eac/culture/library/reports/2014-heritage-mapping_en.pdf (acesso em 5.08.2017).

- EU (2017). The Cultural and Creative Cities Monitor JRC. In https://composite-indicators.jrc.ec.europa.eu/cultural-creative-cities-monitor/ (acesso em 5.11.2017).

- Florida, R. (2005). The Flight of the Creative Class: The New Global Competition for Talent. New York: HarperBusiness.

- Florida, R. (2015). The Global Cities That Power the World Economy Now. The Atlantic’s CityLab website.

- GaWC (2017). Index. In http://www.lboro.ac.uk/gawc/rb/rb23.html (acesso em 3.12.2017).

- Global Influence (2017). Global City Index 2017: The Most Connected Cities. In http://www.globalinfluence.world/en/global-city-index-2017-connected-cities/ (acesso em 5.01.2018).

- Henriques, C. (2003). Turismo, Cidade e Cultura. Planeamento e Gestão Sustentável. Lisboa: Edições Sílabo.

- JLL (2017). The Universe of City Indices 2017 - Decoding City Performance - JLL and The Business of Cities. In http://www.jll.com/cities-research/Documents/benchmarking-future-world-of-cities/JLL-Decoding-City-Performance-2017.pdf (acesso em 3.12.2017).

-Joslyninstitute (2017). Sustainable Communities. In http://joslyninstitute.org/initiatives/sustainometrics/ (acesso em 5.08.2017).

- Korez-Vide, R. (2013). Promoting Sustainability of Tourism by Creative Tourism Development: How far is Slovenia?. Innovative Issues and Approaches in Social Sciences, Vol. 6, No. 1. pp. 78-102.

- Menon Economics (2017). English Summary the Value of Cultural Heritage na Economic Analysis of Cultural Heritage and Cultural Environments. In https://www.menon.no/?lang=en
Downloads/Verdien%20av%20kulturarv%20-%20engelsk%20sammendrag.pdf (acesso em 5.08.2017).

- Navrud, S. & R.C. Ready (eds.) (2002). Valuing Cultural Heritage. Applying Environmental Valuation Techniques to Historical Buildings. Monuments and Artifacts. Cheltenham, UK and Northampton, MA, USA: Edward Elgar Publishing.

- Nocca, F. (2017). The Role of Cultural Heritage in Sustainable Development: Multidimensional Indicators as Decision-Making Tool. BINI 2017, Sustainability 2017, 9, 1882; pp. 1-28.

- O’Brien, D. (2015). Cultural value, measurement and policy making, Arts and Humanities in Higher Education. Vol 14, Issue 1, 2015. pp. 79-94.

- OECD [Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development] (2014). Tourism and the Creative Economy, OECD Studies.

- Pine, B. J. II & Gilmore, J. H. (1999). The Experience Economy, Harvard Business School Press, Boston, MA.

- Richards, G., (2001). Cultural tourists or a culture of tourism? Developments in the European cultural tourism market. Innovations in cultural tourism: proceesings of the 5th ATLAS International conference innovatory approaches to culture and tourism, 1998, Rethymnom, Crete, (ed. Buther, J.), ATLAS, Tilburg, 2001.

- Richards, G., (2011). Creativity and tourism: the state of the art. Annals of tourism research, Vol. 38, No. 4, pp. 2011, 1237.

- Richards, G. & Raymond, C. (2000). Creative tourism. ATLAS news, 2000, No. 23. 4

- Richards, G. & Wilson, J. (2006). Developing Creativity in tourist experiences: A solution to the serial reproduction of culture?. Tourism Management, Vol.: 27, No.: 6, pp. 1209–1223.

- Rifkin, J. (2000). The age of access: The New Culture of Hypercapitalism, Where All of Life is a Paid-for Experience. New York: Jeremy P. Tarcher/Putnam.

- Sassen, S. (2001). The Global City. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2001.

- Softpower (2017). A Global Ranking of Soft Power – Softpower 30. In https://softpower30.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/07/The-Soft-Power-30-Report-2017-Web-1.pdf (acesso em 9.10.2017).

- Scott, A. (2000). The Cultural Economy of Cities. Essays on the Geography of Image-Producing Industries, University of California Los Angeles, USA, Sage Publishing.

- Shore, S., (2010). Cultural and heritage tourism – international. Travel & Tourism Analyst, No. 8, 2010, 12.

- Stylianou-Lambert, T., Mihailova, M., Spinozzi, P., Cicerchia A., Johannisson, J., Kangas, A., Lapka, M., Sesic, M., Dragicevic, K., Siivonen, K. & Skjerven A. (2015). Story 2: sustainable development. In Dessein, J., K. Soini, G. Fairclough and L. G. Horlings (Eds.). (2015, May). Culture in, for and as Sustainable Development: Conclusions from the COST Action IS1007 Investigating Cultural Sustainability. Jyväskylä: University of Jyväskylä. In http://www.culturalsustainability.eu/conclusions.pdf 2015 by University of Jyväskylä, pp. 29-33 (acesso em 9.10.2017).

- Taylor, P-J. (2004). World city network : a global urban analysis. London : Routledge, 2004

- Throsby, D. (2008).Culture in sustainable development: Insights for the future implementation of art. 13. In Convention on the Protection and Promotion of the Diversity of Cultural Expressions. UNESCO: Sydney, Australia, 2008.

- UN [United Nations] (2012). Rio +20 - Future We Want - Outcome document – Sustainable Development. In https://sustainabledevelopment.un.org/index.php?menu=1298 (acesso em 3.12.2017).

-UNCTAD (2017). DATA – Creative Economy. In http://unctadstat.unctad.org/wds/TableViewer/tableView.aspx? (acesso em 9.10.2017).

- UNCTAD (2017a). The UNCTAD Handbook of Statistics 2017. United Nations publication issued by the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development. In http://unctad.org/en/Pages/DITC/CreativeEconomy/Statistics-on-world-trade-in-creative-products.aspx (acesso em 9.11.2017).

- UNDP/UNESCO (2013). Creative Economy Report – Widening Local Development Pathways. United Nations/UNDP/UNESCO, 2013. In http://www.unesco.org/culture/pdf/creative-economy-report-2013.pdf (acesso em 9.10.2017).

UNEP/WTO (2005). Making Tourism more Sustainable - A Guide for Policy Makers. UNEP & WTO. In: http://www.unep.fr/shared/publications/pdf/DTIx0592xPATourismPolicyEN.pdf (acesso em 9.10.2017).

-UNESCO (1972). Convention concerning the protection of the world cultural and natural heritage. Adopted by the General Conference at its seventeenth session. 16 November 1972 Paris, France. Paris: UNESCO.

-UNESCO (1989). Draft medium-term plan (1990–1995). General Conference Twenty-fifth session, 25 C/4. Paris: UNESCO.

-UNESCO (2001). UNESCO universal declaration on cultural diversity. Records of the general conference, 31st session, 15 October–3 November 2001, Paris, France. Annex I, Volume 1 Resolutions. Paris: UNESCO.

-UNESCO (2003). Cultural landscapes: The challenges of conservation. Proceedings of the workshop, 11–12 November 2002, Ferrara, Italy. UNESCO World Heritage Papers, no. 7. Paris: UNESCO.

-UNESCO (2006). Towards sustainable strategies for creative tourism: creative cities network.. Santa Fe, Nwe Mexico, october 25-27,2006. In http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0015/001598/159811e.pdf. (acesso em 9.10.2017).

-UNESCO (2010). The power of culture for development. Paris: UNESCO.

-UNESCO (2014). UNESCO Culture for Development Indicators CDIS– Methodology Manual. In http://en.unesco.org/creativity/sites/creativity/files/digital-library/CDIS%20Methodology%20Manual_0.pdf (acesso em 9.10.2017).

-UNESCO (2014a). The Culture for Development Indicators (CDIS) - Toolbox. In http://www.unesco.org/new/en/culture/themes/cultural-diversity/ (acesso em 9.10.2017).

-UNESCO (2015). Reshaping Cultural Policies. UNESCO http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0024/002428/242866e.pdf(acesso em 3.12.2017).
-UNESCO (2017). UNESCO moving forward the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. UNESCO Task Force on the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development http://en.unesco.org/sdgs (acesso em 9.12.2017).
-UNESCO (2017), Re|shaping cultural policies: advancing creativity for development -2018 – Advancing creativity for development; Unesco, 2017. In http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0026/002605/260592e.pdf. (acesso em 29.12.2017).

-UNWTO [World Tourism Organization] (2014). AM Reports, Volume ten – Global Benchmarking for City Tourism Measurement. UNWTO, Madrid. (UNWTO). In http://cf.cdn.unwto.org/sites/all/files/pdf/global_benchmarking_hr.pdf (acesso em 9.10.2017).
-UNWTO (2015). Tourism and Culture Survey 2015. UNWTO. In www2.unwto.org/webform/tourism-and-culture-survey-2015 (acesso em 9.10.2017).
-UNWTO (2016). UNWTO Annual Report 2015. UNWTO, Madrid. http://cf.cdn.unwto.org/sites/all/files/pdf/annual_report_2015_lr.pdf (acesso em 9.10.2017).
-UNWTO (2017). UNWTO Tourism Highlights, 2017 Edition. UNWTO.
-UNWTO/UNESCO (2015). UNWTO/UNESCO World Conference on Tourism and Culture: Building a New Partnership. 2015 - Cambodia, Siem Reap. In https://en.unesco.org/themes/culture-sustainable-development (acesso em 3.12.2017).

-UNWTO/UNESCO, (2017) Declaração de MUSCAT World Conference on Tourism and Culture: Fostering Sustainable Development, Year of Sustainable Tourism for Develoment 2017, Muscat , Oman, 11-12 dezembro 2017
-WEF (2014). The Competitiveness of Cities. A report of the Global Agenda Council on Competitiveness. In https://www.weforum.org/reports/competitiveness-cities https://www.weforum.org/reports/competitiveness-cities (acesso em 3.12.2017).

-WEF (2016). White Paper White Paper - Factors for Enabling the Creative Economy. In http://www3.weforum.org/docs/WEF_2016_WhitePaper_Enabling_the_Creative_Economy.pdf (acesso em 3.12.2017).

-WTTC [World Travel & Tourism Council] (2017). Tourism Economic Impact – World. WTTC. In: http:www.wttc.com (acesso em 3.12.2017).

-WTTC (2017 a). Travel & Tourism - city-travel-and-tourism-impact-2017/Executive Summary. WTTC. In https://www.wttc.org/-/media/files/reports/economic-impact-research/city-reports/executive-summary---city-travel-and-tourism-impact-2017.pdf (acesso em 3.12.2017).
How to Cite
Henriques, C. H. (2019, November 27). Turismo cultural como vetor de sustentabilidade nas cidades .cultural urban tourism and its sustainability. Journal of Tourism and Heritage Research, 2(4), 327-352. Retrieved from https://jthr.es/index.php/journal/article/view/118