UNLOCKING THE POTENTIAL OF THE TOURISM AREA LIFE CYCLE: A COMPREHENSIVE REVIEW OF ITS DYNAMICS, CHALLENGES, AND FUTURE IMPLICATIONS
In this in-depth theoretical review of the literature relating to the TALC model, the first purpose is to identify its fundamental ideas and motivations, followed by the most controversial aspects of the model. Then, to study the model and its characteristics in various tourism areas with specific and practical cases, and to explore the factors and mechanisms that facilitate the evolution of tourism areas as well as the countermeasures to sustain the model and its usefulness for certain tourism areas. At last, in light of the emerging tendencies in the field of contemporary tourism research along with the changes in future tourism development research, the primary focus of future research in the field of the TALC model will be discussed toward the sustainability of development in various tourism areas at each stage, and the decline mechanisms and renovation policies of tourism areas, and the repositioning of tourism development.
Baum, T. (1998). Taking the exit route: Extending the tourism area life cycle model. Current Issues in Tourism, 1(2), 167–175. https://doi.org/10.1080/13683509808667837
Butler, R. W. (1980). The concept of a tourist area cycle of evolution: implications for management of resources. Canadian Geographer / Le Géographe Canadien, 24(1), 5–12. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1541-0064.1980.tb00970.x
Butler, R. W. (1996). The concept of carrying capacity for tourism destinations: Dead or merely buried? Progress in Tourism and Hospitality Research, 2(3–4), 283–293. https://doi.org/10.1002/pth.6070020309
Butler, R. W. (2006). The Tourism Area Life Cycle, vol. 1. https://doi.org/10.21832/9781845410278
Butler, R. W. (2006). The Tourism Area Life Cycle, Vol.2. https://doi.org/10.21832/9781845410308
Butler, R. W. (2009). Tourism Destination Development: Cycles and Forces, Myths and Realities. Tourism Recreation Research, 34(3), 247–254. https://doi.org/10.1080/02508281.2009.11081600
Butler, R. W. (2019). 2. The Origins of the Tourism Area Life Cycle. In The Tourism Area Life Cycle, Vol. 1 (pp. 13–26). Multilingual Matters. https://doi.org/10.21832/9781845410278-008
Butler, R. W. (2020). Overtourism, education, and the Tourism Area Life Cycle Model. Overtourism and Tourism Education, 7–23. https://doi.org/10.4324/9781003031765-3
Caldicott, R. W., & Scherrer, P. (2013). The Life Cycle of Caravan Parks in Australia: The case of northern New South Wales. Australian Geographer, 44(1), 63–80. https://doi.org/10.1080/00049182.2013.765348
Choy, D. J. L. (1992). Life cycle models for Pacific island destinations. Journal of Travel Research, 30(3), 26–31. https://doi.org/10.1177/004728759203000304
Christaller, W. (1964). Some considerations of tourism location in Europe: The peripheral regions-under-developed countries-recreation areas. Papers of the Regional Science Association, 12(1), 95–105. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF01941243
Cole, S. (2009). A logistic tourism model. Resort Cycles, Globalization, and Chaos. Annals of Tourism Research, 36(4), 689–714. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.annals.2009.07.004
Cole, S. (2012). Synergy and congestion in the tourist destination life cycle. Tourism Management, 33(5), 1128–1140. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tourman.2011.11.018
Debbage, K. G. (1990). Oligopoly and the resort cycle in the Bahamas. Annals of Tourism Research, 17(4), 513–527. https://doi.org/10.1016/0160-7383(90)90024-L
Dodds, R., Ali, A., & Galaski, K. (2018). Mobilizing knowledge: determining key elements for success and pitfalls in developing community-based tourism. Current Issues in Tourism, 21(13), 1547–1568. https://doi.org/10.1080/13683500.2016.1150257
Garay, L., & Cànoves, G. (2011). Life cycles, stages and tourism history: The Catalonia (Spain) Experience. Annals of Tourism Research, 38(2), 651–671. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.annals.2010.12.006
Garcia-Ayllon, S. (2016). Geographic Information System (GIS) Analysis of Impacts in the Tourism Area Life Cycle (TALC) of a Mediterranean Resort. International Journal of Tourism Research, 18(2), 186–196. https://doi.org/10.1002/jtr.2046
Getz, D. (1992). Tourism planning and destination life cycle. Annals of Tourism Research, 19(4), 752–770. https://doi.org/10.1016/0160-7383(92)90065-W
Gilbert, E. W. (1939). The growth of inland and seaside health resorts in England. Scottish Geographical Magazine, 55(1), 16–35. https://doi.org/10.1080/00369223908735100
Hassink, R. (2010). Locked in decline? On the role of regional lock-ins in old industrial areas. In The Handbook of Evolutionary Economic Geography (pp. 450–470). Edward Elgar Publishing Ltd. https://doi.org/10.4337/9781849806497.00031
Johnston, C. S. (2001). Shoring the foundations of the destination life cycle model, part 1: Ontological and epistemological considerations. Tourism Geographies, 3(1), 2–28. https://doi.org/10.1080/14616680010008685
Kozak, M., & Martin, D. (2012). Tourism life cycle and sustainability analysis: Profit-focused strategies for mature destinations. Tourism Management, 33(1), 188–194. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tourman.2011.03.001
Kristjánsdóttir, H. (2016). Can the Butler’s Tourist Area Cycle of Evolution Be Applied to Find the Maximum Tourism Level? A Comparison of Norway and Iceland to Other OECD Countries. Scandinavian Journal of Hospitality and Tourism, 16(1), 61–75. https://doi.org/10.1080/15022250.2015.1064325
Ma, M., & Hassink, R. (2013). An evolutionary perspective on tourism area development. Annals of Tourism Research, 41, 89–109. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.annals.2012.12.004
Moore, W., & Whitehall, P. (2005). The tourism area lifecycle and regime switching models. Annals of Tourism Research, 32(1), 112–126. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.annals.2004.05.006
Noronha, R. (1976). Review of the sociological literature on tourism. The World Bank (pp. 1–115).
Oreja Rodríguez, J. R., Parra-López, E., & Yanes-Estévez, V. (2008). The sustainability of island destinations: Tourism area life cycle and teleological perspectives. The case of Tenerife. Tourism Management, 29(1), 53–65. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tourman.2007.04.007
Plog, S. C. (1974). Why Destination Areas Rise and Fall in Popularity. Cornell Hotel and Restaurant Administration Quarterly, 14(4), 55–58. https://doi.org/10.1177/001088047401400409
Pratt, S. (2011). Economic linkages and impacts across the talc. Annals of Tourism Research, 38(2), 630–650. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.annals.2010.11.014
Priestley, G., & Mundet, L. (1998). The post-stagnation phase of the resort cycle. Annals of Tourism Research, 25(1), 85–111. https://doi.org/10.1016/s0160-7383(97)00062-5
Ritchie, J. R. B., & Crouch, G. I. (2000). The competitive destination: A sustainability perspective. Tourism Management, 21(1), 1–7. Retrieved from
Russo, A. P. (2002). The “vicious circle” of tourism development in heritage cities. Annals of Tourism Research, 29(1), 165–182. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0160-7383(01)00029-9
Saarinen, J. (2006). Traditions of sustainability in tourism studies. Annals of Tourism Research, 33(4), 1121–1140. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.annals.2006.06.007
Singh, S. (2011). The tourism area “life cycle”: A clarification. Annals of Tourism Research, 38(3), 1185–1187. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.annals.2011.03.005
Strapp, J. D. (1988). The resort cycle and second homes. Annals of Tourism Research, 15(4), 504–516. https://doi.org/10.1016/0160-7383(88)90046-1
Tang, L., & Jang, S. (2010). The Evolution from Transportation to Tourism: The Case of the New York Canal System. Tourism Geographies, 12(3), 435–459. https://doi.org/10.1080/14616688.2010.494683
Tenkanen, H., Di Minin, E., Heikinheimo, V., Hausmann, A., Herbst, M., Kajala, L., & Toivonen, T. (2017). Instagram, Flickr, or Twitter: Assessing the usability of social media data for visitor monitoring in protected areas. Scientific Reports, 7(1). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-017-18007-4
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
1.The works published in this magazine are subject to the following terms: Tourism Research Association (the publisher) preserves the patrimonial rights (copyright) of the published works, and favors and allows the reuse of them under the license of use indicated in point 2.
© Investur, 2017
2.The works are published in the electronic edition of the magazine under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivative 3.0 Spain (legal text) license. They can be copied, used, disseminated, transmitted and publicly displayed, provided that: i) the authorship and the original source of their publication (journal, editorial and URL of the work) are cited; ii) are not used for commercial purposes; iii) the existence and specifications of this license are mentioned.
3. Self-file conditions. Authors are allowed and encouraged to disseminate electronically the pre-print versions (version before being evaluated) and / or post-print (version evaluated and accepted for publication) of their works before publication, since it favors their circulation and earlier dissemination and with it a possible increase in its citation and scope among the academic community.