• Rogelio Martinez Cárdenas Universidad de Guadalajara/Centro Universitario de los Altos
Keywords: cultural tourism, intangible heritage, religious heritage, Spiritual heritage, religious tourism


Travel associated with religion and spirituality has been a travel motivator since ancient times. Later, in the seventeenth to nineteenth centuries, a period known as the Grand Tour, the material heritage generated trips to various European sites possessing a rich cultural heritage with an educational nature for young people from the upper economic class. In recent years, the desire for experiences on the part of tourists has caused intangible heritage to become a tourist attraction.

Aspects associated with the spiritual or religious are important elements for a large number of cultural manifestations around the world. UNESCO today considers many of them intangible heritage with the intention of keeping them alive. That is why, in this work, through the use of graph theory, an analysis is carried out of the different criteria that have been used by UNESCO to grant its recognition to living cultural manifestations and thus determine the relevance that spiritual and religious aspects have had as an element of heritage value.


10 MEJORES sitios de interés en Londres. (n.d.). Retrieved January 2, 2022, from London_England.html

10 MEJORES sitios de interés en París. (n.d.). Retrieved January 2, 2022, from Paris_Ile_de_France.html

Carta internacional sobre la conservación y la restauración de monumentos y sitios. (1964). II Congreso Internacional de Arquitectos y Técnicos de Monumentos Históricos, 1–5.

CBI; Molgo, ETFI. (2020, October 20). The European market potential for religious tourism | CBI. potential

di Giovine, M. A. (2021). Religious and Spiritual World Heritage sites. In The Routledge Handbook of Religious and Spiritual Tourism (pp. 204–223). Routledge.

Hughes, K., Bond, N., & Ballantyne, R. (2013). Designing and managing interpretive experiences at religious sites: Visitors’ perceptions of Canterbury Cathedral. Tourism Management, 36, 210–220.
Jackson, R. H. (1995). Pilgrimage tourism and english cathedrals: The role of religion in travel. The Tourist Review, 50(4), 40–48.

MacCannell, D. (1976). The tourist: A new theory of the leisure class. Univ of California Press.

Montes Mata, G. M., & Monroy Ortiz, R. (2021, December 26). Esclavitud y trabajo en las entrañas del Patrimonio Cultural Material. La Unión de Morelos. entranas-del-patrimonio-cultural- material.html?fbclid=IwAR1AvPl8XS_9dfAkfLiNgsQnLDIcYhY5prcrgMzKFmNlTg GmLkxMacgZVKQ

Morinis, E. A. (1992). Introduction: The territory of the anthropology of pilgrimage. In Sacred journeys: the anthropology of pilgrimage (pp. 1–28). Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.

Norman, A. (2011). Spiritual Tourism: Travel and Religious Practice in Western Society. In Continuum. Continuum.

Norman, A. (2012). The Varieties of the Spiritual Tourist Experience. Literature & Aesthetics, 22(2), 20–37.

Norman, A., & Pokorny, J. J. (2017). Meditation retreats: Spiritual tourism well-being interventions. Tourism Management Perspectives, 24, 201–207.

Olsen, D. H. (2003). Heritage, Tourism, and the Commodification of Religion. Tourism Recreation Research, 28(3), 99–104.

Olsen, D. H. (2012). Negotiating identity at religious sites: A management perspective. Journal of Heritage Tourism, 7(4), 359–366.
Olsen, D. H. (2013). A Scalar Comparison of Motivations and Expectations of Experience within the Religious Tourism Market. International Journal of Religious Tourism and Pilgrimage, 1(1), 41–61.

Olsen, D. H. (2020). Pilgrimage, religious tourism, biodiversity, and natural sacred sites. In Religious tourism and the environment (pp. 23–41).

Olsen, D. H., & Timothy, D. J. (2021). Routledge handbook of religious and spiritual tourism. Routledge.

OMT. (2007). Turismo y religiones. 002_summary.pdf

Siem Reap Declaration on Tourism and Culture – Building a New Partnership Model | Déclaration de Siem Reap Tourisme et culture – Construire un nouveau partenariat | Declaración de Siem Reap sobre turismo y cultura: por un nuevo modelo de asociación. (2015). In UNWTO Declarations |
Déclarations de l’OMT | Declaraciones de la OMT (Vol. 24, Issue 1). World Tourism Organization (UNWTO).

UNESCO. (n.d.). El texto de la Convención para la Salvaguardia del Patrimonio Cultural Inmaterial - patrimonio inmaterial - Sector de Cultura -

UNESCO. Patrimonio Cultural Inmaterial. Retrieved December 27, 2021, from
Wiltshier, P. (2014). Volunteers: Their Role in the Management of the Visitor and Pilgrimage Experience Our Service to Visitors Delivered Simply and at Low Cost: the case of Derby Cathedral. International Journal of Religious Tourism and Pilgrimage, 2(2).
How to Cite
Martinez Cárdenas, R. (2022, January 1). RELEVANCE OF RELIGIOUS AND SPIRITUAL ASPECTS AS COMPONENTS OF INTANGIBLE HERITAGE. Journal of Tourism and Heritage Research, 5(1), 136-152. Retrieved from