• António dos Santos Queirós
Keywords: Landscape, Heritage, Value, Ecology, Metaphysics, Environment, Ethics


The purpose of this essay is to research and to discovery the scientific, economic and political basis connecting strategy planning, organization and management of modern tourism with sustainable development. 

The fundamental thesis that will be analyzed is about the potential of the cultural landscape, rural or urban landscapes, to transform resources on products of tourism. And how reading and interpretation of cultural landscape could be the basis to create products of environmental tourism and to make the first metamorphosis of the value.

They are the ecology of the landscape (material heritage) and the metaphysics of landscape (immaterial heritage), which constitute the essence of the resource of tourism, but the landscape only becomes a product of tourism, if could read, interpreted and enjoyed by tourists, adding a new cultural value a new  and economic value to the visitants and tourists.

That strategic connection requests the integration of the policy of safeguarding of heritage with the development of the 7 Chains of Value of the tourism economy and needs to study in parallel the aesthetic and moral categories of landscape (in the framework of environmental ethics and Global Code of Ethics for Tourism). And also promote its appropriation by the different levels of the middle class, who are the core of the public who set the tourism destinations, already configured for the emerging paradigm of Environmental Tourism_ Cultural Tourism, Tourism of Nature and Tourism in Rural Areas...

Author Biography

António dos Santos Queirós

Center of Filosophy. Faculty Letter. University of Lisboa.


Cabral, F. C., (1956). Fundamentos da Arquitectura Paisagista. Lisboa: Instituto de Conservação da Natureza.

Carvalho, A. M. Galopim, Queirós, A. (1999) Geomonumentos. Editora Liga de Amigos de Conimbriga, Museu Monográfico de Conimbriga.

Kuhn, T.S. (1962). The Structure of Scientific Revolutions. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Queirós, A., (2009). Programa de Investigação sobre Turismo Cultural e de Natureza e desenvolvimento sustentável.
Relatório Final. Departamento de Economia, Gestão e Engenharia Industrial (DEGEI). Universidade de Aveiro (“Research programme on Cultural Tourism and Tourism of Nature and Sustainable Development.” Post-doctoral Research. University of Aveiro)

Swarbrooke, 2002. Sustainable Tourism Management, New York: CABI Publishing. Ward, B., Dubos, R (1972). Nous n’avons qu’une terre. Paris: Editions Denoël.

Ziffer, K.A. (1989). Ecotourism: The Uneasy Alliance. Washington DC: Conservation International.

Articulos de revistas/Papers
Larrère, C. (2006). Éthiques de l’environnement. Revue Multitudes, no 24. (Ethics of the
environment) Edition virtuelle. Internet Sources, accessed in 03.02.2015

Queirós, A (2015). Cultural tourism on a changing paradigm. International Journal of Scientific Management and Tourism. iManagement and Tourism. Córdoba, Spain, (pp. 179- 216)

Queirós, A (2015). Cultural tourism and the new economy of heritage. International Journal of Scientific Management and Tourism. iManagement and Tourism. Vol. 1-2. Córdoba, Spain, (pp. 229-251)

Queirós, A (2017). Tourism Management of human heritage on a changing paradigm of Environment Tourism. International Journal of Scientific Management and Tourism. iManagement and Tourism. Vol. 3-4. Córdoba, Spain, (pp.37-59)

Capítulos de libros
Berleant, A. (2011). Changing Landscapes, Keynote lecture at “Transition Landscapes/
Paysages en Transition,” International Conference, Lisbon, Portugal

Fennell, D. (2011). Ethics and Tourism. Philosophical Issues in Tourism, Edited by John
Tribe. Bristol: Channel View Publications, pp. 211-226.

Queirós, A. (2012). Landscape tourism. Manual of philosophy and Landscape Architecture.
A handbook. Coordination of Adriana Veríssimo Serrão. Edition CFUL, pp. 177-187.

Queirós, A. (2013). Cultural agents of change and the sunset of environmental services. And Old farming mountain systems. The economy and ecology of heathlands. Published by Alterra (Wageningen-UR (University and Research Centre). INBO (Belgium) KNNV Publishing. Neederland, pp. 49-50 and pp. 31-48.

Eisenstein, S. (2002). O sentido do filme. Edit Zahar. S. Paulo, Brasil

Data and internet sources
Ecotourism. Principles of Ecotourism, The International Ecotourism Society [TIES] (2011), [] Internet Sources, accessed in 03.02.2015

Global Code of Ethics for Tourism. WTO (2001) []
Internet Sources, accessed in 03.02.2015

UNCHE (1972). Action Plan for the Human Environment. B.5. Development and Environment. United Nations Conference on the Human Environment A/CONF.48/14/Rev.1 -June 1972 Stockholm, Sweden.
How to Cite
dos Santos Queirós, A. (2019, July 1). MATERIAL AND IMMATERIAL HERITAGE: FROM THE CONCEPT OF CULTURAL LANDSCAPE TO THE TOURIST PRODUCT. Journal of Tourism and Heritage Research, 2(3), 90-119. Retrieved from