• Eduardo Villena-Alarcón Universidad de Málaga
Keywords: Public relations, social networks, hotels, fashion, tourism


The opening of international fashion-branded hotels is an added tourist attraction for the area where they emerge. Not only social networks play a key role in the promotion and diffusion of these new spaces but also the influence of these platforms defines the communication strategies. Despite their importance, a gap has been detected in the literature regarding the management and planning of social networks by fashion-branded hotels and their influence on the consumer. The research analyses how these tools are implemented within the communication strategy of fashion-branded hotels. The present paper proposes the case study of Bulgari Hotels & Resorts hotels through a content analysis of the main social networks and a systematic literature review. The results reveal that Bulgari achieves a higher engagement rate per post per day on Facebook than on Instagram, although the number of interactions is higher on Instagram.


Alves, S. (2011). Estratégias de Inovação em Mercados Maduros: Um olhar a partir do Segmento de Serviços de Hotelaria. In: seminário da associação nacional pesquisa e pós- graduação em turismo, 8, Balneário Camboriú/SC, Brasil.
Ayeh, J. K., Au, N., & Law, R. (2013). “Do we believe in TripAdvisor?” Examining credibility perceptions and online travelers’ attitude toward using user-generated content. Journal of Travel Research, 52(4), 437-452.
Bambauer-Sachse, S., & Mangold, S. (2011). Brand equity dilution through negative online word-of-mouth communication. Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, 18(1), 38- 45.
Berelson, B. (1952). Content Analysis in Communications Research. Glencoe (Illinois), The Free Press, 55.
Berezina, K., Bilgihan, A., Cobanoglu, C., & Okumus, F. (2016). Understanding satisfied and dissatisfied hotel customers: text mining of online hotel reviews. Journal of Hospitality Marketing & Management, 25(1), 1-24.
Dallabona, A. (2011). Hospitality and the fashion industry: the Missoni way. International Journal of Management Cases, 13(3), 339-347.
Dallabona, A. (2017). The challenges of luxury fashion flagship hotels: The case of Maison Moschino. Critical Studies in Fashion & Beauty, 8(2), 219-237.
Dev, C. S., Thomas, J. H., Buschman, J., & Anderson, E. (2010). Brand rights and hotel management agreements: lessons from Ritz-Carlton Bali’s lawsuit against the Ritz- Carlton hotel company. Cornell Hospitality Quarterly, 51(2), 215-230.
Fan, W., & Gordon, M. D. (2014). The power of social media analytics. Communications of the ACM, 57(6), 74-81.
Hajli, N. (2015). Social commerce constructs and consumer's intention to buy. International Journal of Information Management, 35(2), 183-191.
Hays, S.; Page, S. J., & Buhalis, D. (2013). Social media as a destination marketing tool: its use bynational tourism organisations. Current issues in Tourism,16(3), 211-239.
Holt, D. B. (2003). ¿Qué transforma una marca en icono? Harvard Business Review, 81(3), 35-41.
Kapoor, P. S., Balaji, M. S., & Jiang, Y. (2021). Effectiveness of sustainability communication on social media: role of message appeal and message source. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 33(3), 949-972.
Kassarjian, H. H. (1977). Content Analysis in Consumer Research, Journal of Consumer Research, 4 (1), 8-19.
Kim, W. G., Lim, H., & Brymer, R. A. (2015). The effectiveness of managing social media on hotel performance. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 44, 165-171.
Lanz, L., Fischhof, B. & Lee, R. (2010). How Are Hotels Embracing Social Media in 2010? Examples of How to Start Engaging. New York: HVS Sales and Marketing Services. Martínez María-Dolores, S. M., Bernal García, J. J., y Mellinas, J. P. (2012). Los hoteles de la
región de Murcia ante las redes sociales y la reputación online. Journal of Tourism Analysis: Revista De Análisis Turístico (JTA). DOI:
Musso, P. (2005). I nuovi territori della marca. Percorsi di senso, discorsi, azioni. Milano: Franco Angeli.
Parres, A. (2019). Meliá: cómo un hotel contribuye a la sostenibilidad de la ciudad a través de sus RR. SS. Actas Icono 14, 1(1), 86-105.
Phan, M., Thomas, R., & Heine, K. (2011). Social media and luxury brand management: The case of Burberry. Journal of Global Fashion Marketing, 2(4), 213-222.
Russell, J. (2010). Evaluate the Effectiveness of Social Media Marketing on Hotels. Hospitality Management Review Student Journal at Sheffield Hallam University, 1.
Sánchez-Jiménez, M. Á., Fernández-Alles, M. T., & Mier-Terán-Franco, J. J. (2019). Estudio de los Beneficios Percibidos por los Usuarios a través de su Experiencia en las Redes Sociales Hoteleras. Información tecnológica, 30(1), 97-108.
Sánchez, D. H. M., & Fernández, J. M. (2017). Análisis de comentarios en redes sociales para mejorar la reputación online hotelera. Anuario Turismo y Sociedad, (20), 169-190.
Schuckert, M., Liu, X., & Law, R. (2015). Hospitality and tourism online reviews: Recent trends and future directions. Journal of Travel & Tourism Marketing, 32(5), 608-621.
So, K. K. F., Wei, W., & Martin, D. (2021). Understanding customer Engagement and social
media activities in tourism: A latent profile analysis and cross-validation. Journal of
Business Research, 129, 474-483.
Sparks, B. A., So, K. K. F., & Bradley, G. L. (2016). Responding to negative online reviews:
The effects of hotel responses on customer inferences of trust and concern. Tourism
Management, 53, 74-85.
Szymkowiak, A., Gaczek, P., & Padma, P. (2021). Impulse buying in hospitality: The role of
content posted by social media influencers. Journal of Vacation Marketing, 27(4), 385-
Villena-Alarcón, E (2018). El influencer de moda como sujeto de relaciones públicas:
recursos y herramientas. Redmarka: revista académica de marketing aplicado, (22), 115-
Vivek, S.; Beatty, S., & Morgan, R., (2012). Customer Engagement: Exploring customer
relationships beyond purchase. Journal of Marketing Theory and Practice, 20(2), 122-
Wichels, S. (2013). Nuevos desafíos en Relaciones Públicas 2.0: La creciente influencia de las
plataformas de online review en Turismo. Revista Internacional de Relaciones Públicas,
4(7), 197-216.
Wichels, S. (2014). Cómo las redes sociales están cambiando la comunicación hotelera.
Techno review. International Technology, Science and Society Review, 3(2).
Xiang, Z., Schwartz, Z., Gerdes Jr, J. H., & Uysal, M. (2015). What can big data and text analytics tell us about hotel guest experience and satisfaction? International Journal of
Hospitality Management, 44, 120-130.
How to Cite
Villena-Alarcón, E. (2022, April 11). SOCIAL NETWORKS AS A COMMUNICATION TOOL IN FASHION- BRANDED HOTELS: BULGARI HOTELS & RESORTS AS A CASE STUDY. Journal of Tourism and Heritage Research, 5(2), 95-105. Retrieved from