The influence of the Unesco WHS recognition on entrepreneurship in cultural microdestinations
In 1993, the brand World Heritage Sites was founded by cities which was declared by UNESCO as Wolrd Heritage, with the aim to preserve their heritage. From this date, several studies have tried to analyze the influence of this distinction on the demand and attractiveness of this destination.
Nevertheless, the influence in supply has not been yet demostrated. For that reason this paper tries to demostrate the influence of the WHS brand in the tourism entrepeneurship
Tax of tourism activities data from 1992 to 2016 was taken to develop a linear regression in two WHS micro-destenations like Úbeda and Baeza. The influence of this brand was seven times higher than time effect. On the other hand, heatmaps were represented to see the effect on the location of the accomodation in this destinations.
This paper try to place the groundwork for a future researchs, demostrating the importance of this distinction in wealth and enterpreneurship.
Allen, R. (2010). Heritage and nationalism. In R. Harrison (Ed.). Understanding the politics of heritage (pp. 197–233). Manchester: Manchester University Press.
Bandarin, F., & van Oers, R. (2012). The Historic Urban Landscape: Managing Heritage in an Urban Century. The Historic Urban Landscape: Managing Heritage in an Urban Century.
Bastakis, C., Buhalis, D., Butler, R., (2004). The perception of small and medium sized tourism accommodation providers on the impacts of the tour operators’ power in Eastern Mediterranean. Tourism Management 25, 151–170.
Bertazzon, S. (1998). Demand-supply dynamics in tourism systems: a spatio-temporal GIS analysis. The Alberta ski industry case study. Calgary.
Bianchi, R. V. (2002). The contested landscape of world heritage on a tourist Island: The case of Garajonay national park, La Gomera. International Journal of Heritage Studies, 8(2), 81e97.
Bowitz, E. & Ibenholt, K. (2009). Economic impacts of cultural heritage-Research and perspectives. Journal of Cultural Heritage 10, 1-8.
Caust, J. & Vecco, M. (2017). Is UNESCO World Heritage recognition a blessing or burden? Evidence from developing Asian countries. Journal of Cultural Heritage 27, 1–9.
Cárdenas-García, P. J., Pulido-Fernández, J. I., & Fernández, A. B. M. (2014). Direct economic impact of tourism on World Heritage Cities: An approach to measurement in emerging destinations. Czech Journal of Tourism, 3(2), 91–106.
Carrillo-Hidalgo, I., Pulido-Fernández, J. I., & Mudarra-Fernández, A. B. (2019). Caracterización del turista en Ciudades Patrimonio de la Humanidad: el caso de Úbeda y Baeza. Boletín de la Asociación de Geógrafos Españoles, 81, 2746, 1–25.
Chen, C. F., & Chen, F. S. (2010). Experience quality, perceived value, satisfaction and behavioral intentions for heritage tourists. Tourism Management, 31(1), 29–35.
Chen, Y., Lee, S., Chen, C., & Chen, Y. (2013). «Cultural landscape of tourism perceptions by multidimensional scaling on Wulai aboriginal community, Taiwan». Journal of Global Business Management, 9(3), 84-94.
Santa, E. D., & Tiatco, A. (2019). Tourism, heritage and cultural performance: Developing a modality of heritage tourism. Tourism Management Perspectives, 31, 301-309.
Gravari-Barbas, M. (2018). Tourism as a heritage producing machine. Tourism Management Perspectives, 25, 173–176.
Harrison, R. (2010). In R. Harrison (Ed.). The politics of heritage Understanding the politics of heritage (pp. 154–196). Manchester: Manchester University Press and Open University Press.
Harvey, D. C. (2001). Heritage pasts and heritage presents: Temporality, meaning and the scope of heritage studies. International Journal of Heritage Studies, 7(4), 319–338.
Hernández-Martín, R., Simancas-Cruz, M. R., González-Yanes, J. A., Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Y., García-Cruz, J. I., & González-Mora, Y. M. (2016). Identifying micro-destinations and providing statistical information: a pilot study in the Canary Islands (8), 771-790.
Jaafar, M., Abdul-Aziz, A. R., Maideen, S. A., & Mohd, S. Z. (2011). Entrepreneurship in the tourism industry: Issues in developing countries. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 30(4), 827-835.
Khadaroo, J., & Seetanah, B. (2008). The role of transport infrastructure in international tourism development: A gravity model approach. Tourism Management, 29(5), 831-840.
Laurence, A. (2010). Heritage as a tool of government. In R. Harrison (Ed.). Understanding the politics of heritage (pp. 81–114). Manchester: Manchester University Press and the Open University Press.
Li, M., Fang, L., Huang, X., & Goh, C. (2015). A spatial–temporal analysis of hotels in urban tourism destination. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 45, 34-43.
Liang, Z., & Hui, T. (2016). Residents’ quality of life and attitudes toward tourism development in China. Tourism Management, 57, 56-67.
Massidda, C., & Etzo, I. (2012). The determinants of Italian domestic tourism: A panel data analysis. Tourism Management, 33(3), 603-610.
Mckercher, B., & Lau, G. (2008). Movement patterns of tourists within a destination. Tourism Geographies, 10(3), 355-374.
McKinsey & Company and World Travel and Tourism Council (2017). Coping with success. Managing overcrowding in tourism destinations.
Murzyn-Kupisz, M. (2013). The socio-economic impact of built heritage projects conducted by private Investors. Journal of Cultural Heritage 14, 156–162
Nguyen, T. H. H., & Cheung, C. (2014). The classification of heritage visitors: A case of Hue City, Vietnam. Journal of Heritage Tourism, 9(1), 35–50.
Omar, S. I., Muhibudin, M., Yussof, I., Sukiman, M. F., & Mohamed, B. (2013). George Town, Penang as a world heritage site: the stakeholders’ perceptions. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 91, 88-96.
Page, S.J., Forer, P., Lawton, G.R., 1999. Small business development and tourism: terra incognita? Tourism Management 20, 435–459.
Poria, Y., Butler, R., & Airey, D. (2003). The core of heritage tourism. Annals of Tourism Research, 30(1), 238–254.
Poria, Y., Reichel, A., & Cohen, R. (2013). Tourists perceptions of world heritage site and its designation. Tourism Management, 35, 272–274.
Remoaldo, P. C., Vareiro, L., Ribeiro, J. C., & Santos, J. F. (2014). Does gender affect visiting a world heritage site? Visitor Studies, 17(1), 89–106.
Reimers, V., & Clulow, V. (2004). Retail concentration: a comparison of spatial convenience in shopping strips and shopping centres. Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, 11(4), 207-221.
Ryan, J., & Silvanto, S. (2011). A brand for all the nations: The development of the World Heritage brand in emerging markets. Marketing Intelligence & Planning, 29, 305–318.
Shetty, P. (2004). Rethinking heritage: The case of heritage conservation in Mumbai. Collective research institute trust papers. Retrieved from http://www.crit.org.in/members/prasad/Rethinking%20Heritage%20(Aug%202003,%20Shangai.
Shoval, N., McKercher, B., Ng, E., & Birenboim, A. (2011). Hotel location and tourist activity in cities. Annals of Tourism Research, 38(4), 1594-1612.
Smith, L. (2006). Uses of heritage. London and New York: Routledge.
Smith, M. K. (2016). Issues in cultural tourism studies. ((3rd ed). Routledge).
Strielkowski, W., Riganti, P., Wang, J., 2012. Tourism, Cultural Heritage and E-Services: Using Focus Groups to Assess Consumer Preferences, Tourismos: An International Multidisciplinary Journal of Tourism, Vol. 7, No 1, pp. 41-60.
Su, Y. W., & Lin, H. L. (2014). Analysis of international tourist arrivals worldwide: The role of world heritage sites. Tourism Management, 40, 46-58.
Surugiu, M. R. & Surugiu, C. (2015.). Heritage tourism entrepreneurship and social media: opportunities and challenges. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 188, 74 – 81
Tchetchik, A., Fleischer, A., & Shoval, N. (2009). Segmentation of visitors to a heritage site using high-resolution time-space data. Journal of Travel Research, 48(2), 216-229.
Timothy, D. J. (2011). Cultural heritage and tourism: An introduction. Bristol: Channel View Publications.
Timothy, D. J., & Nyaupane, G. P. (2009). Cultural heritage and tourism: A regional perspective. New York: Routledge.
Timothy, D. J., & Boyd, S. W. (2006). Heritage tourism in the 21st century: Valued traditions and new perspectives. Journal of Heritage Tourism, 1(1), 1–16.
UNESCO: https://es.unesco.org/themes/patrimonio-mundial (Última visita 24/12/2019)
UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization) (2009): Patrimonio Mundial de España: número especial. Paris: UNESCO, World Heritage Centre.
Vasile, V., Surugiu, M.R., Login, L.A. & Andreea, S. (2015). Innovative valuing of the cultural heritage assets. Economic implication on local employability, small entrepreneurship development and social inclusion. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 188, 16 – 26
Yang, C. H., Lin, H. L., & Han, C. C. (2010). Analysis of international tourist arrivals in China: The role of world heritage sites. Tourism Management, 31(6), 827–837.
Zaman, G. (2015). Cultural heritage entrepreneurship (CHE) – challenges and difficulties. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 188, 3 – 15
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
1.The works published in this magazine are subject to the following terms: Tourism Research Association (the publisher) preserves the patrimonial rights (copyright) of the published works, and favors and allows the reuse of them under the license of use indicated in point 2.
© Investur, 2017
2.The works are published in the electronic edition of the magazine under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivative 3.0 Spain (legal text) license. They can be copied, used, disseminated, transmitted and publicly displayed, provided that: i) the authorship and the original source of their publication (journal, editorial and URL of the work) are cited; ii) are not used for commercial purposes; iii) the existence and specifications of this license are mentioned.
3. Self-file conditions. Authors are allowed and encouraged to disseminate electronically the pre-print versions (version before being evaluated) and / or post-print (version evaluated and accepted for publication) of their works before publication, since it favors their circulation and earlier dissemination and with it a possible increase in its citation and scope among the academic community.