FROM THE CONVENT TO THE STREETS: RECENTRING TOURISTIC PRODUCTS THROUGH GAMIFICATION AND ICT BASED STRATEGIES

  • Rodrigo Nicolau Almeida DINÂMIA'CET Centre for Socioeconomic and Territorial Studies
  • Célio Gonçalo Marques University of Lisbon
  • Paula Almeida Polytechnic Institute of Tomar
  • Eunice Ramos Lopes New University of Lisbon
Keywords: Culture, Gamification, Heritage, ICT, Tomar, Tourism

Abstract

The transformation of consumer culture in contemporaneity has led to the double movement of globalization and glocalization, in their apparent oxymoron: the promotion of globalized values and interests, on one hand, and the increase in value of local assets as sources of development and promotion, on the other – something which is very clear when thinking about cultural tourism and the differential role of various forms of heritage. This points us to the notion of various scales of impact and dissemination, and the possibilities of working with them, rather than focusing specifically on promoting international or national touristic products. In this paper, we have sought to analyse the ways in which such touristic promotion can be undertaken with the help of ICT (Information and Communication Technologies), especially in the context of gamification of the touristic experience, referring to an ongoing project in the city of Tomar. In the context, this seeks to promote a more sustainable and diverse heritage awareness that can serve a dynamic touristic base, rather than centralizing efforts on the main attraction (the Convent of Christ and Templar Castle). More so, we intend with it to deepen the discussion over agent-based touristic product adaptation, in a systems-theoretical perspective, by trying to derive the various possible impacts of individualized touristic experiences, balancing the economic, social and cultural impacts of various ICT strategies. This study case covers four phases, having begun in September 2017. Various data collection and analysis techniques will be used (namely observation, surveys and documental analysis), with the presentation of final results aimed at early 2020.

Author Biographies

Rodrigo Nicolau Almeida, DINÂMIA'CET Centre for Socioeconomic and Territorial Studies

ISCTE-IUL

Célio Gonçalo Marques, University of Lisbon

TECHN&ART - Technology, Restauration and Arts Enhancement CentrPolytechnic Institute of Tomar. CAPP - Centre for Public Policy and Administration.

Eunice Ramos Lopes, New University of Lisbon

TECHN&ART - Technology, Restauration and Arts Enhancement Centre, Polytechnic Institute of Tomar. GOVCOPP - Research Unit on Governance, Competitiveness and Public Policies

References

Almeida, R. N. (2018). Interpretação do Património Urbano: Um Estudo Semiótico de um sistema cultural na cidade de Tomar. ISCTE-IUL / FCSH-NOVA.

Asheim, B., Smith, H. L., & Oughton, C. (2011). Regional Innovation Systems: Theory, Empirics and Policy. Regional Studies, 45(7), 875–891.

Bourdieu, P. (1986). Forms of Capital. In Handbook of Theory and Research for Sociology of Education (pp. 241–258). New York: Greenwood.

Bulencea, P., & Egger, R. (2015). Gamification in Tourism. Norderstedt: Books on Demand.

Castells, M. (1996). The Rise of the Network Society. Oxford: Blackwell.

Chiang, C.-C., Wang, M.-Y., Lee, C.-F., & Chen, Y.-C. (2015). Assessing Travel Motivations of Cultural Tourists: A Factor-Cluster Segmentation Analysis. Journal of Information and Optimization Sciences, 36(3), 269–282.

Christaller, W. (1966). The Central Places in Southern Germany. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall.

Costa, P., & Lopes, R. (2013). Urban design public space and creative milieus: an international comparative approach to informal dynamics in cultural districts. Cidades, Comunidades e Territórios, 26, 40–66.

Costa, P., Vasconcelos, B., & Sugahara, G. (2011). Urban Milieu and the genesis of creativity in cultural activities: An introductory framework for the analysis of urban creative dynamics. Cidades, Comunidades e Territórios, 22, 3–21.

Costa, V. & Lopes, E. R. (2017). A Gamification no Turismo e na Educação Patrimonial. In C. G. Marques, A. Nata, E. F., Brou, E. R. Lopes, F. Pedro & P. P. Almeida (Orgs.) Atas da XII Semana de Gestão. Dando de Caras com o Futuro: Tendências e Desafios do Gestor (pp. 45-53). Tomar: Instituto Politécnico de Tomar.

Deterding, S., Dixon, D., Khaled, R., & Nacke, L. (2011). From game design elements to gamefulness: defining "gamification". In Proceedings of the 15th International Academic MindTrek Conference: Envisioning Future Media Environments (MindTrek '11). New York, NY: ACM.

Doloreux, D., & Gomez, I. P. (2017). A review of (almost) 20 years of regional innovation systems research. European Planning Studies, 20(3), 371–387.

Du Cros, H. (2001). A new model to assist in planning for sustainable cultural heritage tourism. International Journal of Tourism Research, 3(2), 165–170.

European Commission (2011). Cities of Tomorrow - Challenges, visions, ways forward. Brussels: European Commission.

Ferrão, J., Henriques, E. B., & Neves, A. O. (1994). Repensar as cidades de média dimensão. Análise Social1, 29(129), 1123–1147. Retrieved from https://goo.gl/Uxkc7C

Harvey, D. (1990). The Condition of Postmodernity: An Enquiry into the Origins of Cultural Change. Cambridge, M.A.: Blackwell.

Huang, Q., & Satchabut, T. (n.d.). Factors affecting foreign tourists’ satisfaction and willingness to pay more for visiting Bangkok. UTCC International Journal of Business and Economics.

Karanasios, S., Sellitto, C., & Burgess, S. (2015). Mobile devices and information patterns amongst tourists. In Proceedings of ISIC - The Information Behaviour Conference. Leeds.

Katsoni, V. (2011). The role of ICTs in regional tourist development. Regional Science Inquiry Journal, 3(2), 95–113.

MacCannell, D. (1999). The Tourist: A New Theory of the Leisure Class. London: University of California Press.

Marques, C. G. (2016). As tecnologias de informação e comunicação no turismo. Utilização das potencialidades dos dispositivos móveis para promover o património cultural. In C. G. Marques, A. Nata, E. F., Brou, E. R. Lopes, F. Pedro & P. P. Almeida (Orgs.) Atas da XI Semana de Gestão. Rumos Estratégicos: Começar e Recomeçar (pp. 23-30). Tomar: Instituto Politécnico de Tomar.

Marques, C. G., Lopes, E. R., Almeida, P. & Simões, J. (2017). Promotion of accessible tourism through digital content. A case study in the Municipality of Tomar. Journal of Tourism Research, 17, 239-250.

Metro-Roland, M. (2011). Tourists, Signs and the City: The Semiotics of Culture in an Urban Landscape. Surrey: Ashgate.

Monod, E., & Klein, H. K. (2005). A Phenomenological Evaluation Framework for Cultural Heritage Interpretation: From e-HS to Heidegger’s Historicity. In Proceedings of the Eleventh Americas Conference on Information Systems (pp. 2870–2877). Retrieved from http://aisel.aisnet.org/amcis2005/394

Moscardo, G., Fesenmaier, D. R., Uysal, M., & O’Leary, J. (1999). Making Visitors Mindful: Principles for Creating Sustainable Visitor Experiences through Effective Communication. Urbana, Illinois: Sagamore Publishing.

Pelling, N. (2014). Gamification: past and present. In Proceedings of Gamification World Congress 2014. Barcelona: GWC.

Perroux, F. (1991). L’economie du XXéme siécle - ouvrage et articles. Grenoble: Presses Universitaires de Grenoble.

Trismo de Portugal (2007). Plano Estratégico Nacional do Turismo. Lisboa: Turismo de Portugal.

Prada-Trigo, J., Gálvez, J. C. P., López-Guzmán, T., & Loyola, S. E. P. (2016). Tourism and Motivation in Cultural Destinations: towards those Visitors Attracted by Intangible Heritage. Almatourism - Journal of Tourism, Culture and Development, 7(14), 17–37.

Richards, G. (2016). The sustainability of cultural cities: A view from Barcelona. Sustainability of Local Commons with a Global Value: Venice and Its Lagoon, 16.

Russo, A. P. (2002). The “Vicious Circle” of Tourism Development in Heritage Cities. In Annals of Tourism Research, 29(1), 165–182.

Sassen, S. (2005). The Global City. Brown Journal of World Affairs, 11(2), 27–43.

Schiller, N. G., & Çaglar, A. (2009). Towards a Comparative Theory of Locality in Migration Studies: Migrant Incorporation and City Scale. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 35(2), 177–202.

Shannon, C. (1948). A Mathematical Theory of Communication. Bell System Technical Journal, 27(4), 623–666.

Sidonia, R. A., & Cristina, M. (2013). What Motivates Cultural Tourists? An Analysis Of Bucharest Inhabitants’ Motivation To Visit The Centre Region. Annals of Faculty of Economics, 1(1), 825–834. Retrieved from https://goo.gl/EigaRU

Urry, J. (2002). The Tourist Gaze. 2nd Edition. London: Sage Publications.

Uzzell, D. (1989). Heritage Interpretation: The Visitor Experience Vol 2. New York: John Wiley & Sons.

Uzzell, D. (1998). Interpreting our Heritage: A Theoretical Interpretation. In D. Uzzell & R. Ballantyne (Eds.), Contemporary Issues in Heritage and Environmental Interpretation (pp. 11–25). The Stationary Office: London.

Waterton, E., & Steve, W. (2014). The Semiotics of Heritage Tourism. Bristol: Channel View Publications.

Xu, F., Weber, J., & Buhalis, D. (2013). Gamification in Tourism. In Z. Xiang & I. Tussyadiah (Eds), Information and Communication Technologies in Tourism 2014. Cham: Springer.
Published
2020-01-24
How to Cite
Nicolau Almeida, R., Gonçalo Marques, C., Almeida, P., & Ramos Lopes, E. (2020, January 24). FROM THE CONVENT TO THE STREETS: RECENTRING TOURISTIC PRODUCTS THROUGH GAMIFICATION AND ICT BASED STRATEGIES. Journal of Tourism and Heritage Research, 3(1), 196-209. Retrieved from http://jthr.es/index.php/journal/article/view/138